Canosa di Puglia (in Apulian dialect Canaus; in Latin Canusium; in Greek Canusion) is a town and comune in Apulia in southern Italy, between Bari and Foggia, located in the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani, not far from the position on the Ofanto River where the Romans found refuge after the defeat of the Battle of Cannae. It is the burial place of Bohemund I of Antioch.
It is located on the northwestern edge of the plateau of the Murgia which dominates the Ofanto valley and the extensive plains of Tavoliere delle Puglie, ranging from Mount Vulture at the Gargano, to the Adriatic coast.
Canosa is considered the principal archaeological center of Puglia, and is one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in Italy. A number of important vases and other archaeological finds are located in local museums and private collections.
According to tradition, Canosa, then called Canusium, was founded by the Homeric hero Diomedes. Historically, it was one of the main center of the Dauni, in an area where human presence dates back from the 7th millennium BC. The first indigenous settlements (consisting of Dauni, northern branch of the Iapyges people) established on a strip of land called the Diomedea fields, dates back to the Neolithic (6000-3000 BC). The archaic settlement of Toppicelli on the Ofantina plain, has the presence of buildings and tombs of rich aristocratic outfits belonging to the class defined as "Dauni principles." Over the centuries, Canosa became an important commercial center for craftsman (especially ceramics and pottery). With the development of Magna Grecia, the center is influenced by Hellenistic culture (morphologically and urban Canosa is territory for the formation of a Greek polis). In 318 BC Canosa city becomes an ally of Rome, welcoming the Romans after their defeat by Hannibal in 216 BC at Cannae, a small village near the Ofanto. In 88 BC it becomes a municipium and undergoes changes typical of the Romans such as the passage of the Via Traiana (109 AD) the construction of the aqueduct of Herodes Atticus (141 AD), amphitheater, and mausoleums. A little later the emperor Antoninus Pius elevates the center to capital of the Provincia Apuliae et Calabriae.
Towards the end of the 3rd century it became the capital of Apulia and Calabria II Royal, becoming the fourth seat of one of the largest dioceses in Puglia, and reached its greatest significance from the Bishopric of Saint Sabino (from 514 to 566). The presence of an Episcopal district left the artistic values of places of worship and civil architecture earning the nickname "city of bishops". Under the Lombards, it was the seat of the Gastaldate, and in the following centuries suffered several Saracen attacks. Under the Normans (11th-12th centuries) Canosa recovered some importance, in particular due to prince Bohemund I of Antioch. However, after the end of the Hohenstaufen domination in Italy, it went into a decline.
As the imperial age went into decline, continued up to the 18th century, it is accentuated by the many earthquakes (1361, 1456, 1627, 1659), experiences being sacked (in particular, the Tarantini in 1451 and the French troops of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803) and loss of the bishopric. Canosa became a fief, managed by Casati and later the Orsini of Balzo, the Grimaldi of Monaco, the de Gemmis barons of Castelfoce, the Affaitati of Barletta, and the Capece Minutolo of Naples.
After the wars of independence and the disastrous earthquake in 1851, Canosa remained predominantly bourgeois country demonstrated by the construction of
palaces. Virtually unscathed by the World War I, the town suffered the effects of the 1930 Irpinia earthquake (79 years later the reconstruction of part of the Cathedral of San Sabino and many buildings continues) and thus had enormous damage.
On 6 November 1943, shortly after the 8 September armistice, the country was bombed during World War II. Some buildings damaged include the church of San Francesco and San Biagio and part of the Town Hall, and 57 people lost their lives. In April 2001 the City of Canosa was awarded the bronze medal for Civil Valor in remembrance of the tragedy. On 17 September 1962, by decree of the President, Canosa was awarded the title of City for its historical traditions and the merits acquired by the community. In 1980 Canosa was again damaged by earthquake. As many times in the past, the town found itself in a state of emergency, with old buildings and some churches declared unusable.Ora sede della locale Fondazione Archeologica (F.A.C.) 
Currently Canosa is a center based mainly on agriculture, with a service sector (archaeological tourism) and industry and handicrafts (textiles, food processing and manufacturing).